The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a large fox with reddish fur. This mammal is found in open and semi-open habitats, especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in south, central-west and south-eastern Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina, Bolivia east and north of the Andes, and far south-eastern Peru. It is very rare in Uruguay, being possibly extinct.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists it as near threatened, while it is considered vulnerable by the Brazilian government. It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon and it is locally known as aguará guazú (meaning “large fox” in the Guarani language), lobo de crin, lobo de los esteros or lobo colorado, and as lobo-guará in Brazil. It is also called borochi in Bolivia.
The maned wolf has often been described as “a red fox on stilts” owing to its similar coloration and overall appearance, though it is much larger than a red fox and belongs to a different genus. The adult animal stands 67 to 107 cm (26 to 42 in) tall at the shoulder, averages 149 cm (59 in) in total length and weighs 20 to 34.09 kg (44 to 75.2 lb).
The maned wolf is the tallest of the wild canids. The long legs are probably an adaptation to the tall grasslands of its native habitat. Fur of the maned wolf may be reddish brown to golden orange on the sides with long, black legs and a distinctive black mane. The coat is further marked with a whitish tuft at the tip of the tail and a white “bib” beneath the throat. The mane is erectile, and is typically used to enlarge the wolf’s profile when threatened or when displaying aggression.
The maned wolf is also known for its distinctive odour, which has earned it the nickname “skunk wolf.” Unlike other large canids (such as the grey wolf, the African hunting dog, or the dhole) the maned wolf does not form packs. It hunts alone, usually between sundown and midnight. It kills its prey by biting on the neck or back, and shaking it violently if necessary.
Monogamous pairs may defend a shared territory of about 30 km2 (12 sq mi), though the wolves themselves may seldom meet, outside of mating. The territory is crisscrossed by paths that the wolves create as they patrol at night. Several adults may congregate in the presence of a plentiful food source; a fire-cleared patch of grassland, for example, which would leave small vertebrate prey exposed to foraging.
Both male and female maned wolves use their urine to communicate, e.g. to mark their hunting paths, or the places where they have buried hunted prey. The urine has a very distinctive smell, which some people liken to hops or cannabis. The responsible substance is very likely a pyrazine, which occurs in both plants. (At theRotterdam Zoo, this smell once set the police on a hunt for cannabis smokers.)
The mating season ranges from November to April. Gestation lasts 60 to 65 days, and a litter may have up to 2 to 6 black-furred pups, each weighing about 450 g (16 oz). These pups are fully grown in about one year.
The maned wolf specializes in small and medium-sized prey, including small mammals (typically rodents and hares), birds, and even fish. A large fraction of its diet (over 50 per cent, according to some studies) is vegetable matter, including sugar cane, tubers, and fruit.
Captive maned wolves were traditionally fed meat-heavy diets and developed bladder stones. Zoo diets now feature fruits and vegetables, as well as meat and dog chow.
The maned wolf participates in symbiotic relationships with the plants that it feeds on, as it carries the seeds of various plants, and often defecates on the nests of leaf cutter ants. The ants then use the dung to fertilize their fungus gardens, and later discard the seeds onto refuse piles just outside their nest. This process significantly increases the germination rate of the seeds.
The wolf is particularly susceptible to infection by the giant kidney worm, a potentially fatal parasite that may also infect domestic dogs. The Maned Wolf is not a common prey species for any other predator, though it may be attacked or killed by feral domestic dogs.
The maned wolf is said to be a potential chicken thief; it was once also considered a threat to cattle and sheep, though this is now known to be false. In Brazil, the animal was historically hunted down for some body parts, notably the eyes that were believed to be good luck charms. Since its classification as a vulnerable species by the Brazilian government, it has received greater consideration and protection from most people. They are also threatened by habitat loss and being run over by cars. Feral and domestic dogs attack them and pass on diseases to them. The maned wolf is generally shy and flees when alarmed, so it poses little direct threat to humans.
Although the maned wolf displays many fox-like characteristics, it is not closely related to foxes and lacks the elliptical pupils found in foxes. The maned wolf’s evolutionary relationship to the other members of the canid family makes it a unique animal.
The maned wolf is not closely related to any other living canid. It is not a fox, wolf, coyote, dog, or jackal, but a distinct canid, although previously it had been placed in Canis andVulpes genera based on morphological similarities.
Pic saved as maned-wolf
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